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Research Ethics & Professional Ethics

The Research Ethics and Professional Ethics collection provides empirical research and scholarship on the socially responsible conduct of research, medical and mental health treatments, and public health policy and their relationship to evolving national and international laws and guidelines. Resources address issues in bioethics, public health ethics, medical ethics, social science, genomics, psychology, psychiatry, federal regulations, community engagement, human rights and human dignity, racial and social justice, informed consent, minimal risk, confidentiality, research and treatment incentives, risk-benefit analysis, RCR training and mentoring, and moral distress.
This collection includes research from Fordham University's Center For Ethics Education, the Human Development and Social Justice Lab, and HIV and Drug Abuse Prevention Research Ethics Training Institute faculty and fellows, directed by Celia Fisher, PhD.
Anderson, E. E., Solomon, S., Heitman, E., DuBois, J. M., Fisher, C. B., Kost, R. G., Lawless, E., Ramsey, C., Jones, B., Ammerman, A., & Friedman Ross, L. (2012).  Research ethics education for community-engaged research: A review and research agenda.  Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics, 7, 3-19. PMID: 22565579; PMCID: PMC3483026. Keywords: Community-based participatory research, community-engaged research, research ethics education

Broaddus, M., Marsch, L. A., & Fisher, C. B. (2015). Risks and benefits of text-message-delivered and small-group delivered sexual health interventions among African American women in the Midwestern United States. Ethics & Behavior, 25 (2). PMCID: PMC4349332. NIHMSID: NIHMS625641.  Keywords: Sexual health interventions, HIV/STIs, text messaging, mHealth, risk/benefit assessment


Brown, B., Davtyan, M., & Fisher, C. B. (2015). Peruvian female sex workers’ ethical perspectives on their participation in an HPV vaccine clinical trial. Ethics & Behavior, 25(2). PMCID: PMC5079211. NIHMSID: NIHMS816146. Keywords: Ethics, vaccine trails, female sex workers, informed consent, confidentiality, risks and benefits


Bragard, E. Fisher, C. B. & Curtis, B. L. (2019). “They know what they are getting into:” Researchers confront the benefits and challenge of online recruitment for HIV research. Ethics & Behavior. PMID: 33041608 PMCID: PMC7539627. https://doi: 10.1080/10508422.2019.1692663.  Keywords: HIV, online recruitment, social media, ethics internet research, privacy

Bruzzese, J. M., & Fisher, C. B. (2003). Assessing and enhancing the research consent capacity of children and youth. Applied Developmental Science, 7, 13–26.  Keywords: informed consent, The Research Participants' Bill of Rights, research ethics, research risks and benefits, privacy and confidentiality

Cea, C., & Fisher, C. B. (2003). Health care decision-making by adults with mental retardation. Mental Retardation, 41, 78– 87. PMID: 12622524.<0078:HCDMBA>2.0.CO;2.  Keywords: Adult, aged, decision making, female, health begavior, humans, informed consent, psychology, intellectual disability, male, mental competency, middle aged, patient acceptance of healthcare

Clark, D. B., Fisher, C. B., Bookheimer, S., Brown, S. A., Evans, J. H., Hopfer, C., Hudziak, J., Montoya, I., Murray, M., Pfefferbaum, A., Yurgelun-Todd, D.  (2018). Biomedical ethics and clinical oversight in multisite observational neuroimaging studies with children and adolescents: The ABCD experience. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience Aug;32:143-154, PMID: 28716389; PMCID: PMC5745294; NIHMS893252. Keywords: Ethics, adolescence, magnetic resonance imaging, clinical oversight, substance abuse

Donnor, M., VandeCreek, L., Gonsiorek, J., & Fisher, C. B. (2008). Balancing confidentiality. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 39, 369–376. Keywords: disclosure of confidential information, mandatory and permissible disclosures, research ethics, decision making, psychotherapy

DuBois, J., Baily-Curch, B., Bustillos, D., Campbell, J., Cottler, L., Fisher, C. B., Hadley, W. B., Hoop, J. G., Roberts, L., Salter, E. K., Sieber, J. E., & Stevenson, R. D.  (2011). Ethical issues in mental health research: the case for community engagement.  Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 24(3), 208–214.  PMID: 21460643, PMCID: PMC3528105. https:// doi: 10.1097/YCO.0b013e3283459422.  Keywords: Research ethics, mental health, substance abuse, community engagement 

Fisher, C. B. & Layman, D. M. (2018). Genomics, big data, and broad consent: A new ethics frontier for prevention science. Prevention Science, 19(7), 871-879, PMID: 30145751 PMCID: PMC6182378. Also included in Phillips, K. A., Yamamoto, D, P., & Racz, L. (eds.). Total exposure health: An introduction. CRC Press.  Keywords: Informed consent, broad consent, genetics, prevention science, privacy, research ethics 

Fisher, C. B., Fried, A. L., Puri, L. I., Macapagal, K. & Mustanski, B. (2018). Patient-provider communication barriers and facilitators to HIV and STI preventive services for adolescent MSM. Aids & Behavior, 22, 3417-3428. PMID: 29546468.  Keywords: Adolescent, HIV, sexually transmitted infections, healthcare, men who have sex him men, MSM, prevention, stigma, mistrust, discrimination, physician, patient-provider communication


Fried, A.L. & Fisher, C.B. (2016).  Moral stress and job burnout among frontline staff conducting clinical research on affective and anxiety disorders. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 47, 171-180.PMID: 28484305. PMCID: PMC5419685.  Keywords: Clinical research; job burnout; moral stress; research ethics.

Fisher, C. B., & Yuko, E. (2015). The HIV and Drug Abuse Prevention Research Ethics Training Institute: Training early-career scientists to conduct research on research ethics. Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics 10, 470-480.  Keywords: Ethics, training, HIV, drug abuse, community-based research, evidence-based ethics


Fisher, C. B. & Mustanski, B. (2014). Reducing health disparities and enhancing the responsible conduct of research involving LGBT youth. Hastings Center Report, 5, 28-31.  PMID 25231783. PMCID: PMC4617525. Keywords:  Bioethical issues, bioethics, biomedical research ethics, biomedical research legislation and jurisprudence, biomedical research standards, confidentiality, gender identity, health status disparities, human rights, humans, legal guardians, medicalization ethics, sexual and gender minorities.

Fisher, C. B. (2013). Human rights and psychologists’ involvement in assessments related to death penalty cases. Ethics & Behavior, 23(1), 58-61. Keywords: Ethics, American Psychological Association (APA), conflicts between ethics and law, human rights, fallibility, forensic psychology

Fisher, C. B.  (2013). Confidentiality and disclosure in non-intervention adolescent risk research, Applied Developmental Science. 17(2), 88-93. Keywords: Privacy, research responsibilities, vulnerable youth, autonomy, welfare, duty-to-protect, risk-disclosure procedures

Fisher, C. B. Brunquell, D. J., Hughes, D. L., Liben, L. S., Maholmes, V., Plattner, S., Russell, S. T. & Sussman, E. J.  (2013).  Preserving and enhancing the responsible conduct of research involving children and youth: a response to proposed changes in federal regulations. Social Policy Report, 27(1), 1, 3-15. Keywords: Behavioral science research, research design, ethics, federal regulation, change, informed consent, adolescents, children, youth, participation, researchers, personal autonomy, child development, risk, research administration, health, sexuality  

Fisher, C. B., & McCarthy, E. L. (2013). Ethics in prevention science involving genetic testing [Special issue]. Prevention Science, 14(3), 310-318. PMID: 23354905; PMCID: PMC3633706.  Keywords: Disclosure, privacy and confidentiality, informed consent, recruitment, data collection, biobanks, pediatric research, justice, The Human Genome Project, genomics


Fisher, C. B., True, G., Alexander, L. & Fried, A. L. (2013).  Moral stress, moral practice and ethical climate in community -ased drug use research: views from the frontline. American Journal of Bioethics: Primary Research. 4(3), 27–38. PMID: 27795869. PMCID: PMC5082423.  Keywords: Ethics, research, substance-related disorders, moral obligations, organizational culture, psychological stress, moral stress

Fisher, C. B. (2011).  Addiction research ethics and the Belmont principles: do drug users have a different moral voice?  Substance Use and Misuse. 46(6), 728-741. PMID: 21073412; PMCID: PMC3638744. Keywords: ethics, participant perspectives, Belmont Report, confidentiality, moral values, bioethics, drug abuse, justice, autonomy, decision-making 


Fisher, C. B.  (2010). Enhancing HIV vaccine trial consent preparedness among street drug users. Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics, 5, 65-80.  PMID: 20569151, PMCID: PMC3133928. Keywords: intravenous drug use, HIV risk, vaccine trails, informed consent, trust, ethics, addiction  


Fisher, C. B., Fried, A. F., Goodman, S. J., & Germano, K. K. (2009). Measures of mentoring, department climate, and graduate student preparedness in the responsible conduct of psychological research. Ethics & Behavior, 19, 227–252.. PMCID: PMC3634717. NIHMSID: NIHMS298914. Keywords: Ethics, research, responsible conduct of research, mentoring, department climate, graduate education 


Fisher, C. B., Fried, A. F., & Feldman, L. (2009). Graduate socialization in the responsible conduct of research: A national survey on the research ethics training experiences of psychology doctoral students. Ethics & Behavior, 19, 496–518. PMCID: PMC3639435.  NIHMSID: NIHMS298915.  Keywords: Ethics, research, responsible conduct of research, mentoring, department climate, graduate education, psychology

Fisher, C. B., & Oransky, M. (2008). Informed consent to psychotherapy: protecting the dignity and respecting the autonomy of patients. Journal of Clinical Psychology: In Session (Special Section on Ethics in Psychotherapy), 64(5), 576–588.. PMID: 18381749. Keywords: Confidentiality, decision making, domestic violence, education, standards, ethics, forensic psychiatry, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, informed consent, mental disorders, therapy, personal autonomy, privacy, professional practice, professional-patient relations, psycho-therapeutic processes, psychotherapy

Fisher, C. B., Oransky, M., Mahadevan, M., Singer, M., Mirhej, G., & Hodge, G. D. (2008). Marginalized populations and drug addiction research: Realism, mistrust, and misconception. IRB: Ethics & Human Research, 30(3), 1–9. PMID: 18814439; PMCID: 18814439. NIHMSID: NIHMS163917. Keywords: Decision making, humans, informed consent, patient participation, randomized controlled trials as topic, research, substance-related disorders, trust, vulnerable populations

Fisher, C. B., Kornetsky, S. Z., & Prentice, E. D. (2007). Determining risk in pediatric research with no prospect of direct benefit: Time for a national consensus on the interpretation of federal regulations. American Journal of Bioethics, 7, 5– 10. PMID: 17366219. Keywords: Adolescent, advisory committees, biomedical research, child, preschool, consensus, ethics committees, research, humans, minors, non-therapeutic human experimentation, legislation & jurisprudence, research subjects, risk assessment, vulnerable populations.

Fisher, C. B. (2006). Clinical trials results databases: Unanswered questions. Science, 311, 180–181. PMID: 16410509. Keywords: research ethics, International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), positive results bias, Fair Access to Clinical Trials (FACT) Act, participant and patient protections, institutional review board (IRB), safety, health-care practice and cost, industry sustainability


Fisher, C. B., Cea, C. D., Davidson, P. W., & Fried, A. L. (2006). Capacity of persons with mental retardation to consent to participation in randomized clinical trials. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 1813–1820. PMID: 17012694. https://doi:org.10.1176/ajp.2006.163.10.1813.  Keywords: Adult, aged, choice behavior, comprehension ethics, female, humans, informed consent, mental competency, middle aged, patient participation, patient rights, patient selection persons with mental disabilities, randomized controlled trials, surveys and questionnaires.

Fisher, C. B. (2006). Privacy and ethics in pediatric environmental health research—Part I: Genetic and prenatal testing. Environmental Health Perspectives, 114, 1617–1621. PMID: 17035153. PMCID: PMC1626406. Keywords: Child, Child Welfare, Environmental Health, Ethics, Research, Female, Genetic Testing, Humans, Mothers, Pregnancy, Prenatal Diagnosis, Privacy

Fisher, C. B. (2006). Privacy and ethics in pediatric environmental health research—Part II: Protecting families and communities. Environmental Health Perspectives, 114, 1622–1625. PMID: 17035154. PMCID: PMC1626422. Keywords: Child, child welfare, environmental health, ethics, research, female, genetic testing, humans, mothers, pregnancy, prenatal diagnosis, privacy

Fisher, C. B. (2005). Deception research involving children: Ethical practice and paradox. Ethics & Behavior, 15, 271–287. PMID: 16523564. Keywords: Behavioral research, child, child behavior, psychology, comprehension, deception, disclosure, ethics, humans, informed, observation, research design

Fisher, C. B. (2005). SES, ethnicity and goodness-of-fit in clinician-parent communication during pediatric cancer trials. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 30, 231–234. PMID: 15784919. Keywords: Adult, child, clinical trials as topic, communication, ethnic groups, humans, informed consent, neoplasms, professional-family relations.

Fisher, C. B., & Kornetsky, S. Z. (2005). SACHRP recommendations for review of children’s research requiring DHHS Secretary’s approval. IRB: Ethics & Human Research, 27, 8–10. PMID: 16021795. Keywords: Advisory committees, child advocacy, legislation & jurisprudence, child, ethical review, standards, ethics committees, research, ethics, government regulation, experimentation, humans, multi-center studies as topic, United States Office of Research Integrity

Fisher, C. B. (2004). Challenges in constructing a cross-national ethics code for psychologists [Commentary on the book Professional ethics across national boundaries]. European Psychologist, 9(4), 275-277. Keywords: research ethics, human rights, code development, universal moral principles, American Psychological Association (APA) Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct.

Fisher, C. B. (2004). Informed consent and clinical research involving children and adolescents: Implications of the revised APA ethics code and HIPAA. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 33, 832–839. PMID: 15498750. Keywords: Adolescent, Biomedical Research, Child, Child Advocacy, Codes of Ethics,Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, Humans, Informed Consent, ethics, Privacy, legislation & jurisprudence, Psychology, Clinical, legislation & jurisprudence, Societies, Medical.

Fisher, C. B. (2004). Ethics in drug abuse and related HIV risk research. Applied Developmental Science, 8(2), 91-103.  Keywords:  Drug abuse, HIV risk, ethical challenges, education, health condtiions, gender and ethnic minority, informed consent, confidentiality

Fisher, C. B. (2003). A goodness-of-fit ethic for informed consent to research involving persons with mental retardation and developmental disabilities. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 9, 27–31. PMID: 12587135.  Keywords: Adult, child, communication, developmental disabilities, humans, informed consent, ethics, intellectual disability, interpersonal relations, mental competency, patient selection, research, vulnerable populations

Fisher, C. B. (2003). A goodness-of-fit ethic for child assent to nonbeneficial research. American Journal of Bioethics, 3, 27–28. PMID: 14744320. Adolescent, age factors, altruism, beneficence, child development, child, ethics, humans, informed consent, mental competency, non-therapeutic human experimentation, refusal to participate, researcher-subject relations.


Fisher, C. B., & Fried, A. L. (2003). Internet-mediated psychological services and the APA ethics code. Psychotherapy: Theory/Research/Practice/Training, 40, 103–11. Keywords: research ethics, American Psychological Association, Internet-mediated psychological services, competence, conflicts of interest, informed consent, privacy and confidentiality, public statements and advertising, test selection and scoring, telehealth.

Fisher, C. B., Pearson, J. L., Kim, S., & Reynolds, C. F. (2002). Ethical issues in including suicidal individuals in clinical research. IRB: Ethics & Human Research, 24, 9–14. PMID: 12737170. Keywords: Behavioral research, clinical trials as topic, community mental health services, ethics, humans, informed consent, mental competency, mentally ill persons, patient selection, personal autonomy, randomized controlled trials as topic, research design, research subjects, risk assessment, safety, substance-related disorders, suicide, prevention & control, terminally ill.

Fisher, C. B., Hoagwood, K., Boyce, C., Duster, T., Frank, D. A., Grisso, T., Macklin, R., Levine, R. J., Spencer, M. B., Takanishi, R., Trimble, J. E., Zayas, L. H. (2002). Research ethics for mental health science involving ethnic minority children and youth. American Psychologist, 57(12), 1024–1040. PMID: 12613155.  Republished in Kazdin, A. E. (Ed.) 2016). Methodological issues and strategies in clinical research, 4th ed. Washington, DC: APA Press. PMID: 12613155. https:// doi:10.1037/0003-066x.57.12.1024.  Keywords: Research ethics; ethnic minority; children; youth; mental health treatment; ethical decision making; mental health research. 

Fisher, C. B., & Wallace, S. A. (2000). Through the community looking glass: Reevaluating the ethical and policy implications of research on adolescent risk and psychopathology. Ethics & Behavior, 10(2), 99-118. Keywords:  Teenagers, adolescent risk behaviors, ethnic background, genetic research on youth problems 

Fisher, C. B. (1999). A relational ethics and research with vulnerable populations. In Reports on research involving persons with mental disorders that may affect decision-making capacity (Vol. 2, pp. 29–49). Commissioned Papers by the National Bioethics Advisory Commission. Rockville, MD: National Bioethics Advisory Commission. Retrieved October 26, 2009, from Keywords: Ethics; Research; vulnerable populations; philosophical ethics; confidentiality; informed consent or human experimentation; research on special populations.

Fisher, C. B. (1997). A relational perspective on ethics-in-science decision-making for research with vulnerable populations. IRB: Ethics & Human Research, 19(5), 1-4.  Keywords: Vulnerable populations, diverse backgrounds, federal regulations, IRB, informed consent, cognitive impairments 

Greenhill, L. L., Jensen, P., Abikoff, H., Blumer, J. M., DeVaugh-Geiss, J., Fisher, C. B., Hoagwood, K., Kratochvil, C. J., Lahey, B., Laughren, T., Leckman, J., Petti, T., Pope, K., Shaffer, D., Vitiello, B., & Zeanah, C. (2003). Developing strategies for psychopharmacological studies in preschool children. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 42, 406–414. PMID: 12649627. Keywords: Pre-school children, clinical trials, ethics, diagnosis.

Lee, L.M., Fisher, C. B., & Jennings, B. (2016). Revising the American Public Health Association's Public Health Code of  Ethics American Journal of Public Health. American Journal of Public Health. 106(7), 1198-1199. PMID: 27285257. Keywords: Codes of Ethics, Humans, Public Health, Ethics, Public Health, Standards, United States

Macapagal, K., Bettin, E., Matson, M., Kraus, A., Fisher, C. B. & Mustanski, B. (2019) Measuring discomfort in health research relative to everyday events and routine care: An application to sexual and gender minority youth. Journal Adolescent Health, 63, 1 – 8.  PMID: 30612810 PMCID: PMC6478526. Keywords: Adolescent sexual behavior, adolescent sexual health, research ethics, HIV/AIDS 

Macapagal, K., Coventry, R., Arbeit, M. R., Fisher, C. B., & Mustanski, B. (2017). “I won’t out myself just to do a survey”: Sexual and gender minority adolescents’ perspectives on the risks and benefits of sex research.​ Archives of sexual behavior, 46(5), 1393-1409.  Keywords: Sexual behavior, sexual orientation, adolesence, reasearch ethics, parental consent

Masty, J., & Fisher, C. B. (2008). A goodness of fit approach to parent permission and child assent pediatric intervention research. Ethics & Behavior, 13, 139–160. Keywords: informed consent, assent, goodness of fit, pediatric intervention research, pediatric oncology. Keywords: Informed consent, assent, goodness of fitpediatric intervention research, pediatric oncology

Matson, M. Macapagal, K ,Kraus, A. Coventry, R. & Bettin, E. & Fisher, C.B. & Mustanski,B. (2019). Sexual and Gender Minority Youth’s Perspectives on Sharing De-identified Data in Sexual Health and HIV Prevention Research. Sexuality Research and Social Policy, 16, 1 – 11. ISSN: 1868-9884 PMID: 31890053 PMCID: PMC6936765. https://doi: 10.1007/s13178-018-0372-7. Keywords: Data sharing, adolescents, participants perspectives, HIV prevention, research ethics, sexual orientation, gender identity.

Mustanski, B., Coventry, R., Macapagal, K., Arbeit, M., & Fisher, C. B. (2017). Adolescents’ views on HIV research participation and parental permission: A mixed methods study. Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 49, 111-121. PMC5768203. Keywords: Sexual and gender minorities, institutional review boards (IRB), HIV surveillance research, HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment, LGBTQ youth, informed consent.

Parker, M., Pearson, C., Donald, C., & Fisher, C. B. (2019). Beyond the Belmont Principles: A community-based approach to developing an indigenous ethics model and curriculum for training health researchers working with American Indian and Alaska Native communities. American Journal of Community Psychology. 64, 9 – 20. online July 2019 0 PMID: 31355974 PMCID: PMC6750973. https://doi: 10.1002/ajcp.12360.  Keywords: Alaska Natives; American Indians; community-based participatory research; ethics; indigenous communities; training curriculum.

Pearson, C. R. Parker, M., Zhou, C., Donald, C., Fisher, C. B. (2019). A Culturally Tailored Research Ethics Training Curriculum for American Indian and Alaska Native Communities: A Randomized Comparison Trial. Critical Public Health, 29, 27-39. Published online Feb, 2018. PMID: 30613127 PMCID: PMC6320230 Keywords: American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN), ethics training curriculum, randomized control trial (RCT), social behavioral research. 


Pearson, C. R., Parker, M., Fisher, C. B., & Moreno, C. (2014). Capacity building from the inside out: Development and evaluation of a CITI ethics certification training module for American Indian and Alaska Native community researchers. Journal Of Empirical Research On Human Research Ethics, 9(1), 46-57. PMID: 24572083. PMCID: PMC4004423.  Keywords: American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN), community engaged research (CEnR), culturally responsive human subjects training.  

Pearson, J. L., Stanley, B., King, C., & Fisher, C. B. (2001). Intervention research for persons at high risk for suicidality: Safety and ethical considerations. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Supplement, 62, 17–26. PMID: 11765091. Keywords: Internal struggle, therapeutic alliance, suicidal ideationASSIP.

Tao, X., Bragard, E. & Fisher, C.B. (2021). Risks and Benefits of Adolescent Girls’ Participation in Online Sexting Survey Research. Arch Sex Behav. Keywords: Adolescent girls, sexting, sexual behavior, ethics, minimal risk.

Young, J. L., & Fisher, C. B. (2010). Advancing the science of EPA guidelines for sponsor-financed topical insect repellent efficacy studies. Regulatory Toxicology & Pharmacology, 56, 51–53. PMID: 19914325. Keywords: Administration, topical, data interpretation, statistical, drug evaluation, guidelines as topic, humans, insect bites and stings, prevention & control, insect repellents, administration & dosage, private sector, product labeling, research, standards, sample size, time factors, United States Environmental Protection Agency.

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